ESC 1000 Earth Science    Name: _____________

 Chapter 5: Running Water and Groundwater


Part K Chapter 5 Key Terms                                    67 Points

Fill in the blanks with the word or words that best fit the definition:


1.       ______________- A fan-shaped deposit of sediment formed when a      stream slope is abruptly reduced.

2.       ______________-Unconsolidated sediment deposited by a stream.

3.       ______________ - Rock or soil through which the ground water moves easily.

4.       ______________ - Impermeable beds that hinder or prevent groundwater movement.

5.        ______________- A well in which the water rises above the level where it was initially encountered.

6.       ______________- are earthen mounds built on the banks of a river to increase the volume of water the channel can hold.

7.    ______________ - A poorly drain area on a floodplain that results when natural levees are present.

8.     ______________ – common term for sand and gravel deposits in a stream channel.

9.     ______________ - The level below which a stream cannot erode.

10.  ______________– Sediment that is carried by a stream along the bottom of its channel.

11.   ______________- A stream consisting of numerous intertwining Channels.

12.   ______________- The total amount of sediment a stream is able to transport.

13.   ______________-  A naturally formed underground chamber or series of chambers most commonly produced by solution activity in limestone

14.   ______________- A measure of the largest particle a stream can transport; a factor dependent on velocity.

15.  ______________ - A cone-shaped depression in the water table immediately surrounding a well.

16.  ______________– the area of active erosion on the other side of a meander.

17.  ______________ - A short channel segment created when a river erodes through the narrow neck of land between meanders.

18.  ______________ - An accumulation of sediment formed where a stream enters a lake or ocean.

19.  ______________ - A stream system that resembles the pattern of a branching tree.

20.  ______________ - The quantity of the water in a stream that passes a given point in a period of time.

21.  ______________– That portion of a stream’s load carried in solution.

22.  ______________ - A section of a stream that leaves the main flow.

23.  ______________ - A imaginary line that separates the drainage of two stream; often found along a ridge.

24.  ______________– The land area that contributes water to a stream.

25.  ______________ - The difference in height between the bottom of a cone of depression and the original height of the water table.

26.  ______________ - The incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent, such as water, wind, or ice.

27.  ______________ - The combined effect of evaporation and transportation

28.  ______________ - When the discharge of a stream becomes so great that it exceeds the capacity of the channel, it overflows its bank which is natural behavior of streams.

29.  ______________ - are dams built to store floodwater and then let it out slowly

30.   ______________- The flat, low-lying portion of a stream valley subject to periodic inundation.

31.  ______________ - A fountain of hot water ejected periodically.

32.  ______________ - The slope of a stream, generally measured in feet per mile.

33.   ______________- Water in zone of saturation.

34.   ______________- A spring in which water is 6-9°C (10-15°F) warmer than the mean annual air temperature of its locality

35.  ______________ - The unending circulation of the earth water supply.

36.  ______________ - Meandering channel that flows in a steep, narrow valley. They form either when an area is uplifted or when the base level drops.

37.  ______________ - The maximum rate at which soil can absorb water.

38.  ______________- A portion of water that soaks into the ground.

39.  ______________– a topography  consisting of numerous depressions call sinkholes.

40.  ______________ - The movement of water particles in straight-line paths that are parallel to the channel. The water particles move downstream without mixing.

41.  ______________ - A looplike bends in the course of a stream.

42.   ______________- The elevated land-forms that parallel some streams and act to confine their waters, except during floodstage.

43.  ______________ - A curved lake produced when a stream cuts off a meander.

44.  ______________ - A measure of material’s ability to transmit water.

45.  ______________– A crescent-shaped accumulation of sand and gravel depositied inside of a meander.


46.  ______________ - The volume of open spaces in a rock or soil.

47.  ______________ - A system of streams running in all directions away from a central elevated structure, such as a volcano.

48.  ______________ - A drainage pattern characterized by numerous right angle bends that develops on jointed or fractures bedrock.

49.  ______________ - When the rate of rainfall exceeds the earth ability to absorb                                               it, the surplus water flows over the surface into the lakes, and streams.

50.  ______________ – transportation of sediment through a series of leaps and bounces.

51.  ______________– The speed at which a particle falls through a still fluid. The size, shape, and specific gravity of particles influence this effect.  

52.  ______________ - A depression produced in a region where soluble rock has been removed by groundwater.

53.  ______________ -The process by which solid particles of various sizes are separated by moving water or wind. Also, the degree of similarity in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock.

54.  ______________ - A flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface.

55.  ______________ - The icicle-like structure that hangs from the ceiling of a carven.

56.  ______________– The columnlike form that grows upward from the floor of a cavern.

57.  ______________ - The channel, valley floor, and slopping valley walls of a stream.

58.  ______________ - The fine sediment carried within the body of flowing water.

59.  ______________ - The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by    plants. 

60.  ______________ - A system of streams in which nearly parallel tributaries occupy valleys cut into folded strata.

61.   ______________- The movement of water in a erratic fashion often characterized by swirling, whirlpool-like eddies. Most stream flow a is of this type.

62.  ______________– The area above the water table where openings in soil, sediment, and rock are not saturated but filled mainly with air.

63.  ______________- The upper level of saturated zone of groundwater.

64.  ______________ - An opening bored into the zone of saturation.

65.   - A tributary that flow a parallel to the main stream because a natural levee is present.

66.  ______________ - Area above the water table where openings in soil, sediment, and rock are not saturated but filled mainly with air.

67.  ______________ - Zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water.




Chapter 5: Running Water and Groundwater

Alluvial Fans

Drainage Basin

Radial Pattern



Rectangular Pattern







Artesian Well


Settling velocity

Artificial Levees

Flood Control Dams








Base level



Bed load



Braided Stream

Hot springs

Stream Valley


Hydrologic Cycle

Suspended Load


Incised Meander




Trellis Pattern

Cone of Depression

Infiltration Capacity

Turbulent Flow

Cut bank

Karst topography

Unsaturated zone


Laminar Flow

Water Table




Dendritic Pattern

Natural Levees

Yazoo Tributary


Oxbow lake

Zone of Aeration

Dissolved load


Zone of Saturation


Point bar