ESC 1000 Earth Science Tarbuck’s 11th-12th-13th Ed.
Chapter 6: Glacier, Deserts, and Wind 53 Points
1. Ablation – A general term for the loss of ice and snow from a glacier.
2. Abrasion- The grinding and scraping of a rock surface by the friction and impact of rock particles carried by water, wind, or ice.
3. Alluvial fan- Unconsolidated sediment deposited by a stream.
4. Alpine glacier- A glacier confined to a mountain valley, which in most instance has previously been a stream valley.
5. Aręte- A narrow knife like ridge separating two adjacent glaciated valleys.
6. Barchan Dune- A solitary sand dune shaped like a crescent with its tips pointing downward.
7. Barchanoid Dune- Dunes forming scalloped rows of sand oriented at the right angle to the wind. This form is immediate between isolated barchans and extensive waves of transverse dune.
8. Blowout- A depression excavated by the wind in easily eroded deposits.
9. Cirque- An amphitheater-shaped basin at the head of a glaciated valley produced by frost wedging and plucking.
10. Crevasse- A deep crack in the brittle surface of a glacier.
11. Cross beds- sloping layers of sand forming layers inclined in the direction the wind is blowing.
12. Deflation- The lifting or removal of loose material by wind.
13. Desert pavement- A layer of coarse pebbles and gravel created when wind removed the finer material.
14. Drumlin- A streamline asymmetrical hill compose of glacial till. The steep side of the hill faces the direction from which the ice advanced.
15. End moraine- A ridge of till marking a former position of the front of a glacier.
16. Ephemeral stream – A stream that is usually dry because it carries water only in response to specific episodes of rainfall. Most desert streams are of this type.
17. Esker- Sinuous rigid composed largely of sand and gravel deposited by a stream flowing in a tunnel beneath a glacier near its terminus.
18. Fiord- A steep-sided inlet of the sea formed when a glacial trough was partially submerged
19. Glacial drift- An all-embracing term for sediments of glacial origin, no matter how, where, or in what shape they where deposited.
20. Glacial erratic- An ice transported boulder the was not derived from bedrock near its present site.
21. Glacial Striations – scratches and grooves on bedrock caused by glacial abrasion
22. Glacial Trough- A mountain valley that has been widened, deepened, and straightened by a glacier.
23. Glacier- A thick mass of ice originating on land from the compaction and recrystalization of snow that shows evidence of past or present flow.
24. Ground Moraine- A undulating layer of till deposited as the ice front retreats.
25. Hanging Valley- A tributary valley that enters a glacial trough at a considerable height above its floor.
26. Horn- A pyramid –like peak formed by glacial action in three or more cirques surrounding a mountain summit.
27. Ice Cap- A mass of glacial ice covering a high upland of plateau and spreading out rapidly.
28. Ice Sheet- A very large, thick mass of glacial ice flowing outward in all directions from one or more accumulation centers.
29. Ice Shelf – it is a large , relatively flat mass of floating ice that extends seaward from the coast but remain attached to the land along one of the shores
30. Interior drainage- A discontinuous pattern of intermittent streams that do not flows to the ocean.
31. Kame- A steep-sided hill composed of sand and gravel originating when sediment is collected in openings in stagnant glacial ice.
32. Kettle holes – depressions crated when blocks of ice become lodged in glacial deposits and subsequently melted.
33. Lateral Moraine- A ridge of till along the side of an alpine glacier composed primarily of debris that fell to the glacier from the valley walls.
34. Loess- Deposits of windblown silt, lacking visible layer generally buff-colored, and capable of maintaining a nearly vertical cliff.
35. Longitudinal dune- Long ridges of sand oriented parallel to the prevailing wind; these dunes from where sand supplies are limited.
36. Medical Moraine- A ridge of till formed when lateral moraines from two coalescing alpine glaciers join.
37. Outwash Plain- A relatively flat, gently sloping plain consisting of materials deposited by meltwater stream in from of the margin of an ice sheet.
38. Parabolic dune- The shape of these dunes resembles brachans, expect their tips point into the wind; they often form along coasts that have strong on-shore winds, abundant sand, and vegetation that partly cover the sand.
39. Piedmont Glacier- A glacier that forms when one or more valley glaciers emerge from the confining walls of a mountain valleys and spreads out to create a broad sheet in the lowlands at the base of the mountains.
41. Pleistocene epoch- An epoch of the Quaternary period beginning about 1.8 million years ago, and ending about 10,000 years ago. Best known as the time of extensive continental glaciations.
42. Plucking- The process by which pieces of bedrock are lifted out of a place by a glacier.
44. Rock flour- Ground-up rock produced by the grinding of effect of a glacier.
45. Slip face- The steep, leeward slope of a sand dune; it maintains an angle of about 34 degrees.
46. Star Dune- Isolated hill of sand that exhibits a complex form and develops where wind directions are variable.
47. Stratified drift- Sediments deposited by glacial meltwater.
48. Till- Unsorted sediment deposited directly by a glacier.
49. Transverse dune- A series of long ridges oriented at the right angle of the prevailing wind; these dunes form where vegetation is sparse and sand is very plentiful.
50. Valley Glacier- same as alpine glacier which is a glacier confined to a mountain valley, which in most instance has previously been a stream valley
51. Valley Train- A relatively narrow body of stratified drift deposited on a valley floor by meltwater streams that issue from a valley glacier.
52. Zone of Accumulation-The part of a glacier characterized by snow accumulation and ice formation. Its outer limits in the snowline.
53. Zone of Wastage- The part of a glacier beyond the zone accumulation where all the snow from the previous winter melts, as does some the glacial ice.